Notifications

Introduction

In addition to support for sending email, Laravel provides support for sending notifications across a variety of delivery channels, including mail, SMS (via Nexmo), and Slack. Notifications may also be stored in a database so they may be displayed in your web interface.

Typically, notifications should be short, informational messages that notify users of something that occurred in your application. For example, if you are writing a billing application, you might send an "Invoice Paid" notification to your users via the email and SMS channels.

Creating Notifications

In Laravel, each notification is represented by a single class (typically stored in the app/Notifications directory). Don't worry if you don't see this directory in your application, it will be created for you when you run the make:notification Artisan command:

php artisan make:notification InvoicePaid

This command will place a fresh notification class in your app/Notifications directory. Each notification class contains a via method and a variable number of message building methods (such as toMail or toDatabase) that convert the notification to a message optimized for that particular channel.

Sending Notifications

Using The Notifiable Trait

Notifications may be sent in two ways: using the notify method of the Notifiable trait or using the Notification facade. First, let's explore using the trait:

<?php

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;

class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use Notifiable;
}

This trait is utilized by the default App\User model and contains one method that may be used to send notifications: notify. The notify method expects to receive a notification instance:

use App\Notifications\InvoicePaid;

$user->notify(new InvoicePaid($invoice));

{tip} Remember, you may use the Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable trait on any of your models. You are not limited to only including it on your User model.

Using The Notification Facade

Alternatively, you may send notifications via the Notification facade. This is useful primarily when you need to send a notification to multiple notifiable entities such as a collection of users. To send notifications using the facade, pass all of the notifiable entities and the notification instance to the send method:

Notification::send($users, new InvoicePaid($invoice));

Specifying Delivery Channels

Every notification class has a via method that determines on which channels the notification will be delivered. Out of the box, notifications may be sent on the mail, database, broadcast, nexmo, and slack channels.

{tip} If you would like to use other delivery channels such as Telegram or Pusher, check out the community driven Laravel Notification Channels website.

The via method receives a $notifiable instance, which will be an instance of the class to which the notification is being sent. You may use $notifiable to determine which channels the notification should be delivered on:

/**
 * Get the notification's delivery channels.
 *
 * @param  mixed  $notifiable
 * @return array
 */
public function via($notifiable)
{
    return $notifiable->prefers_sms ? ['nexmo'] : ['mail', 'database'];
}

Queueing Notifications

{note} Before queueing notifications you should configure your queue and start a worker.

Sending notifications can take time, especially if the channel needs an external API call to deliver the notification. To speed up your application's response time, let your notification be queued by adding the ShouldQueue interface and Queueable trait to your class. The interface and trait are already imported for all notifications generated using make:notification, so you may immediately add them to your notification class:

<?php

namespace App\Notifications;

use Illuminate\Bus\Queueable;
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notification;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldQueue;

class InvoicePaid extends Notification implements ShouldQueue
{
    use Queueable;

    // ...
}

Once the ShouldQueue interface has been added to your notification, you may send the notification like normal. Laravel will detect the ShouldQueue interface on the class and automatically queue the delivery of the notification:

$user->notify(new InvoicePaid($invoice));

If you would like to delay the delivery of the notification, you may chain the delay method onto your notification instantiation:

$when = Carbon::now()->addMinutes(10);

$user->notify((new InvoicePaid($invoice))->delay($when));

Mail Notifications

Formatting Mail Messages

If a notification supports being sent as an email, you should define a toMail method on the notification class. This method will receive a $notifiable entity and should return a Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\MailMessage instance. Mail messages may contain lines of text as well as a "call to action". Let's take a look at an example toMail method:

/**
 * Get the mail representation of the notification.
 *
 * @param  mixed  $notifiable
 * @return \Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\MailMessage
 */
public function toMail($notifiable)
{
    $url = url('/invoice/'.$this->invoice->id);

    return (new MailMessage)
                ->greeting('Hello!')
                ->line('One of your invoices has been paid!')
                ->action('View Invoice', $url)
                ->line('Thank you for using our application!');
}

{tip} Note we are using $this->invoice->id in our message method. You may pass any data your notification needs to generate its message into the notification's constructor.

In this example, we register a greeting, a line of text, a call to action, and then another line of text. These methods provided by the MailMessage object make it simple and fast to format small transactional emails. The mail channel will then translate the message components into a nice, responsive HTML email template with a plain-text counterpart. Here is an example of an email generated by the mail channel:

> {tip} When sending mail notifications, be sure to set the `name` value in your `config/app.php` configuration file. This value will be used in the header and footer of your mail notification messages. #### Other Notification Formatting Options Instead of defining the "lines" of text in the notification class, you may use the `view` method to specify a custom template that should be used to render the notification email: /** * Get the mail representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return \Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\MailMessage */ public function toMail($notifiable) { return (new MailMessage)->view( 'emails.name', ['invoice' => $this->invoice] ); } In addition, you may return a [mailable object](/docs/5.5/mail) from the `toMail` method: use App\Mail\InvoicePaid as Mailable; /** * Get the mail representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return Mailable */ public function toMail($notifiable) { return (new Mailable($this->invoice))->to($this->user->email); } #### Error Messages Some notifications inform users of errors, such as a failed invoice payment. You may indicate that a mail message is regarding an error by calling the `error` method when building your message. When using the `error` method on a mail message, the call to action button will be red instead of blue: /** * Get the mail representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return \Illuminate\Notifications\Message */ public function toMail($notifiable) { return (new MailMessage) ->error() ->subject('Notification Subject') ->line('...'); } ### Customizing The Recipient When sending notifications via the `mail` channel, the notification system will automatically look for an `email` property on your notifiable entity. You may customize which email address is used to deliver the notification by defining a `routeNotificationForMail` method on the entity: email_address; } } ### Customizing The Subject By default, the email's subject is the class name of the notification formatted to "title case". So, if your notification class is named `InvoicePaid`, the email's subject will be `Invoice Paid`. If you would like to specify an explicit subject for the message, you may call the `subject` method when building your message: /** * Get the mail representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return \Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\MailMessage */ public function toMail($notifiable) { return (new MailMessage) ->subject('Notification Subject') ->line('...'); } ### Customizing The Templates You can modify the HTML and plain-text template used by mail notifications by publishing the notification package's resources. After running this command, the mail notification templates will be located in the `resources/views/vendor/notifications` directory: php artisan vendor:publish --tag=laravel-notifications ## Markdown Mail Notifications Markdown mail notifications allow you to take advantage of the pre-built templates of mail notifications, while giving you more freedom to write longer, customized messages. Since the messages are written in Markdown, Laravel is able to render beautiful, responsive HTML templates for the messages while also automatically generating a plain-text counterpart. ### Generating The Message To generate a notification with a corresponding Markdown template, you may use the `--markdown` option of the `make:notification` Artisan command: php artisan make:notification InvoicePaid --markdown=mail.invoice.paid Like all other mail notifications, notifications that use Markdown templates should define a `toMail` method on their notification class. However, instead of using the `line` and `action` methods to construct the notification, use the `markdown` method to specify the name of the Markdown template that should be used: /** * Get the mail representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return \Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\MailMessage */ public function toMail($notifiable) { $url = url('/invoice/'.$this->invoice->id); return (new MailMessage) ->subject('Invoice Paid') ->markdown('mail.invoice.paid', ['url' => $url]); } ### Writing The Message Markdown mail notifications use a combination of Blade components and Markdown syntax which allow you to easily construct notifications while leveraging Laravel's pre-crafted notification components: @component('mail::message') # Invoice Paid Your invoice has been paid! @component('mail::button', ['url' => $url]) View Invoice @endcomponent Thanks,
{{ config('app.name') }} @endcomponent #### Button Component The button component renders a centered button link. The component accepts two arguments, a `url` and an optional `color`. Supported colors are `blue`, `green`, and `red`. You may add as many button components to a notification as you wish: @component('mail::button', ['url' => $url, 'color' => 'green']) View Invoice @endcomponent #### Panel Component The panel component renders the given block of text in a panel that has a slightly different background color than the rest of the notification. This allows you to draw attention to a given block of text: @component('mail::panel') This is the panel content. @endcomponent #### Table Component The table component allows you to transform a Markdown table into an HTML table. The component accepts the Markdown table as its content. Table column alignment is supported using the default Markdown table alignment syntax: @component('mail::table') | Laravel | Table | Example | | ------------- |:-------------:| --------:| | Col 2 is | Centered | $10 | | Col 3 is | Right-Aligned | $20 | @endcomponent ### Customizing The Components You may export all of the Markdown notification components to your own application for customization. To export the components, use the `vendor:publish` Artisan command to publish the `laravel-mail` asset tag: php artisan vendor:publish --tag=laravel-mail This command will publish the Markdown mail components to the `resources/views/vendor/mail` directory. The `mail` directory will contain a `html` and a `markdown` directory, each containing their respective representations of every available component. You are free to customize these components however you like. #### Customizing The CSS After exporting the components, the `resources/views/vendor/mail/html/themes` directory will contain a `default.css` file. You may customize the CSS in this file and your styles will automatically be in-lined within the HTML representations of your Markdown notifications. > {tip} If you would like to build an entirely new theme for the Markdown components, simply write a new CSS file within the `html/themes` directory and change the `theme` option of your `mail` configuration file. ## Database Notifications ### Prerequisites The `database` notification channel stores the notification information in a database table. This table will contain information such as the notification type as well as custom JSON data that describes the notification. You can query the table to display the notifications in your application's user interface. But, before you can do that, you will need to create a database table to hold your notifications. You may use the `notifications:table` command to generate a migration with the proper table schema: php artisan notifications:table php artisan migrate ### Formatting Database Notifications If a notification supports being stored in a database table, you should define a `toDatabase` or `toArray` method on the notification class. This method will receive a `$notifiable` entity and should return a plain PHP array. The returned array will be encoded as JSON and stored in the `data` column of your `notifications` table. Let's take a look at an example `toArray` method: /** * Get the array representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return array */ public function toArray($notifiable) { return [ 'invoice_id' => $this->invoice->id, 'amount' => $this->invoice->amount, ]; } #### `toDatabase` Vs. `toArray` The `toArray` method is also used by the `broadcast` channel to determine which data to broadcast to your JavaScript client. If you would like to have two different array representations for the `database` and `broadcast` channels, you should define a `toDatabase` method instead of a `toArray` method. ### Accessing The Notifications Once notifications are stored in the database, you need a convenient way to access them from your notifiable entities. The `Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable` trait, which is included on Laravel's default `App\User` model, includes a `notifications` Eloquent relationship that returns the notifications for the entity. To fetch notifications, you may access this method like any other Eloquent relationship. By default, notifications will be sorted by the `created_at` timestamp: $user = App\User::find(1); foreach ($user->notifications as $notification) { echo $notification->type; } If you want to retrieve only the "unread" notifications, you may use the `unreadNotifications` relationship. Again, these notifications will be sorted by the `created_at` timestamp: $user = App\User::find(1); foreach ($user->unreadNotifications as $notification) { echo $notification->type; } > {tip} To access your notifications from your JavaScript client, you should define a notification controller for your application which returns the notifications for a notifiable entity, such as the current user. You may then make an HTTP request to that controller's URI from your JavaScript client. ### Marking Notifications As Read Typically, you will want to mark a notification as "read" when a user views it. The `Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable` trait provides a `markAsRead` method, which updates the `read_at` column on the notification's database record: $user = App\User::find(1); foreach ($user->unreadNotifications as $notification) { $notification->markAsRead(); } However, instead of looping through each notification, you may use the `markAsRead` method directly on a collection of notifications: $user->unreadNotifications->markAsRead(); You may also use a mass-update query to mark all of the notifications as read without retrieving them from the database: $user = App\User::find(1); $user->unreadNotifications()->update(['read_at' => Carbon::now()]); Of course, you may `delete` the notifications to remove them from the table entirely: $user->notifications()->delete(); ## Broadcast Notifications ### Prerequisites Before broadcasting notifications, you should configure and be familiar with Laravel's [event broadcasting](/docs/5.5/broadcasting) services. Event broadcasting provides a way to react to server-side fired Laravel events from your JavaScript client. ### Formatting Broadcast Notifications The `broadcast` channel broadcasts notifications using Laravel's [event broadcasting](/docs/5.5/broadcasting) services, allowing your JavaScript client to catch notifications in realtime. If a notification supports broadcasting, you should define a `toBroadcast` method on the notification class. This method will receive a `$notifiable` entity and should return a `BroadcastMessage` instance. The returned data will be encoded as JSON and broadcast to your JavaScript client. Let's take a look at an example `toBroadcast` method: use Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\BroadcastMessage; /** * Get the broadcastable representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return BroadcastMessage */ public function toBroadcast($notifiable) { return new BroadcastMessage([ 'invoice_id' => $this->invoice->id, 'amount' => $this->invoice->amount, ]); } #### Broadcast Queue Configuration All broadcast notifications are queued for broadcasting. If you would like to configure the queue connection or queue name that is used to the queue the broadcast operation, you may use the `onConnection` and `onQueue` methods of the `BroadcastMessage`: return (new BroadcastMessage($data)) ->onConnection('sqs') ->onQueue('broadcasts'); > {tip} In addition to the data you specify, broadcast notifications will also contain a `type` field containing the class name of the notification. ### Listening For Notifications Notifications will broadcast on a private channel formatted using a `{notifiable}.{id}` convention. So, if you are sending a notification to a `App\User` instance with an ID of `1`, the notification will be broadcast on the `App.User.1` private channel. When using [Laravel Echo](/docs/5.5/broadcasting), you may easily listen for notifications on a channel using the `notification` helper method: Echo.private('App.User.' + userId) .notification((notification) => { console.log(notification.type); }); #### Customizing The Notification Channel If you would like to customize which channels a notifiable entity receives its broadcast notifications on, you may define a `receivesBroadcastNotificationsOn` method on the notifiable entity: id; } } ## SMS Notifications ### Prerequisites Sending SMS notifications in Laravel is powered by [Nexmo](https://www.nexmo.com/). Before you can send notifications via Nexmo, you need to install the `nexmo/client` Composer package and add a few configuration options to your `config/services.php` configuration file. You may copy the example configuration below to get started: 'nexmo' => [ 'key' => env('NEXMO_KEY'), 'secret' => env('NEXMO_SECRET'), 'sms_from' => '15556666666', ], The `sms_from` option is the phone number that your SMS messages will be sent from. You should generate a phone number for your application in the Nexmo control panel. ### Formatting SMS Notifications If a notification supports being sent as a SMS, you should define a `toNexmo` method on the notification class. This method will receive a `$notifiable` entity and should return a `Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\NexmoMessage` instance: /** * Get the Nexmo / SMS representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return NexmoMessage */ public function toNexmo($notifiable) { return (new NexmoMessage) ->content('Your SMS message content'); } #### Unicode Content If your SMS message will contain unicode characters, you should call the `unicode` method when constructing the `NexmoMessage` instance: /** * Get the Nexmo / SMS representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return NexmoMessage */ public function toNexmo($notifiable) { return (new NexmoMessage) ->content('Your unicode message') ->unicode(); } ### Customizing The "From" Number If you would like to send some notifications from a phone number that is different from the phone number specified in your `config/services.php` file, you may use the `from` method on a `NexmoMessage` instance: /** * Get the Nexmo / SMS representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return NexmoMessage */ public function toNexmo($notifiable) { return (new NexmoMessage) ->content('Your SMS message content') ->from('15554443333'); } ### Routing SMS Notifications When sending notifications via the `nexmo` channel, the notification system will automatically look for a `phone_number` attribute on the notifiable entity. If you would like to customize the phone number the notification is delivered to, define a `routeNotificationForNexmo` method on the entity: phone; } } ## Slack Notifications ### Prerequisites Before you can send notifications via Slack, you must install the Guzzle HTTP library via Composer: composer require guzzlehttp/guzzle You will also need to configure an ["Incoming Webhook"](https://api.slack.com/incoming-webhooks) integration for your Slack team. This integration will provide you with a URL you may use when [routing Slack notifications](#routing-slack-notifications). ### Formatting Slack Notifications If a notification supports being sent as a Slack message, you should define a `toSlack` method on the notification class. This method will receive a `$notifiable` entity and should return a `Illuminate\Notifications\Messages\SlackMessage` instance. Slack messages may contain text content as well as an "attachment" that formats additional text or an array of fields. Let's take a look at a basic `toSlack` example: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { return (new SlackMessage) ->content('One of your invoices has been paid!'); } In this example we are just sending a single line of text to Slack, which will create a message that looks like the following: #### Customizing The Sender & Recipient You may use the `from` and `to` methods to customize the sender and recipient. The `from` method accepts a username and emoji identifier, while the `to` method accepts a channel or username: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { return (new SlackMessage) ->from('Ghost', ':ghost:') ->to('#other') ->content('This will be sent to #other'); } You may also use an image as your logo instead of an emoji: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { return (new SlackMessage) ->from('Laravel') ->image('https://laravel.com/favicon.png') ->content('This will display the Laravel logo next to the message'); } ### Slack Attachments You may also add "attachments" to Slack messages. Attachments provide richer formatting options than simple text messages. In this example, we will send an error notification about an exception that occurred in an application, including a link to view more details about the exception: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { $url = url('/exceptions/'.$this->exception->id); return (new SlackMessage) ->error() ->content('Whoops! Something went wrong.') ->attachment(function ($attachment) use ($url) { $attachment->title('Exception: File Not Found', $url) ->content('File [background.jpg] was not found.'); }); } The example above will generate a Slack message that looks like the following: Attachments also allow you to specify an array of data that should be presented to the user. The given data will be presented in a table-style format for easy reading: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { $url = url('/invoices/'.$this->invoice->id); return (new SlackMessage) ->success() ->content('One of your invoices has been paid!') ->attachment(function ($attachment) use ($url) { $attachment->title('Invoice 1322', $url) ->fields([ 'Title' => 'Server Expenses', 'Amount' => '$1,234', 'Via' => 'American Express', 'Was Overdue' => ':-1:', ]); }); } The example above will create a Slack message that looks like the following: #### Markdown Attachment Content If some of your attachment fields contain Markdown, you may use the `markdown` method to instruct Slack to parse and display the given attachment fields as Markdown formatted text: /** * Get the Slack representation of the notification. * * @param mixed $notifiable * @return SlackMessage */ public function toSlack($notifiable) { $url = url('/exceptions/'.$this->exception->id); return (new SlackMessage) ->error() ->content('Whoops! Something went wrong.') ->attachment(function ($attachment) use ($url) { $attachment->title('Exception: File Not Found', $url) ->content('File [background.jpg] was *not found*.') ->markdown(['title', 'text']); }); } ### Routing Slack Notifications To route Slack notifications to the proper location, define a `routeNotificationForSlack` method on your notifiable entity. This should return the webhook URL to which the notification should be delivered. Webhook URLs may be generated by adding an "Incoming Webhook" service to your Slack team: slack_webhook_url; } } ## Notification Events When a notification is sent, the `Illuminate\Notifications\Events\NotificationSent` event is fired by the notification system. This contains the "notifiable" entity and the notification instance itself. You may register listeners for this event in your `EventServiceProvider`: /** * The event listener mappings for the application. * * @var array */ protected $listen = [ 'Illuminate\Notifications\Events\NotificationSent' => [ 'App\Listeners\LogNotification', ], ]; > {tip} After registering listeners in your `EventServiceProvider`, use the `event:generate` Artisan command to quickly generate listener classes. Within an event listener, you may access the `notifiable`, `notification`, and `channel` properties on the event to learn more about the notification recipient or the notification itself: /** * Handle the event. * * @param NotificationSent $event * @return void */ public function handle(NotificationSent $event) { // $event->channel // $event->notifiable // $event->notification } ## Custom Channels Laravel ships with a handful of notification channels, but you may want to write your own drivers to deliver notifications via other channels. Laravel makes it simple. To get started, define a class that contains a `send` method. The method should receive two arguments: a `$notifiable` and a `$notification`: toVoice($notifiable); // Send notification to the $notifiable instance... } } Once your notification channel class has been defined, you may simply return the class name from the `via` method of any of your notifications: